Участник:Алый Король/Фонология: различия между версиями

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(1954.05 - 1985.04) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camera_Mainichi The Camera MAINICHI Magazine and Shoji YAMAGISHI (1930- 1979.07.20): A most influential monthly photography magazine in post-war Japan, with editors like Shoji YAMAGISHI, Kazuo NISHII, et al published by Mainichi Shimbun-sha (an oldest nation-wide newspaper company). While other monthly magazines from different news press companies put much emphasis on mechanical and technical sides of photography, Camera MAINICHI attracted the readers for its leadership toward newest trends of the expressions by photo artists. Especially after 1963, editor YAMAGISHI played a great role in finding and choosing new photographic talents, introduced their work not only in the regular issues, sometimes made special independent issues, or introducing them to overseas museums like MOMA in New York, where his friend, John Szarkowski was the director of the photography division. YAMAGISHI also directed and edited for outstanding series photography books from other publisher, Chuo-Koronsha in 1971-1972, whose series title was named EIZO NO GENDAI (10 volumes). After YAMAGISHI resigned from his post as editor in chief of Camera MAINICHI in 1978 for heavy symptoms of neurosis, he killed himself in his office in Tokyo and found dead on the morning of his 49th birthday. (Briefly summarised from The Homage to a Photographic Editor: Shoji YAMAGISHI, written by Kazuo NISHII, published from Madosha, 2003 ISBN4-89625-038-9)
'''Фонология китайского языка''' — раздел фонологии, занимающийся изучением звукового строя и функционирования звуков китайского языка.
 
1981-1985 https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/写楽_(雑誌) Kishin SHINOYAMA & The Monthly SHAGAKU Magazine (1981.04-1985.12) etc. ''All my models are selected top few people from our era, to which I myself also belong. I think I'm in the role of copying and recording the skin of our era' ( summarized from SHINOYAMA's concluing words told about his magazine works to Takuma NAKAHIRA ( p.319 KETTO SHASHIN-RON, 1977 Asahi Shimbunsha). After almost two decades of successful magazine works with various publishers since early 1960s, especially after he titled his work style 'GEKISHA'(i.e. hard shooting), SHINOYAMA established his indisputable top role in the mass cultural magazines by the end of 1970s. One of Gekisha series books, 'GEKISHA: 135 Girl Friends' (1979, Shogakukan) was said to have sold 700,000 copies and ranked high in the top ten best selling books of the year in Japan. The Monthly SHAGAKU, from Shogakukan publisher, named after Toshusai SHARAKU, a most famous Edo Period Ukiyoe wood-block printer, started to be published in April 1981, a year earlier than the rival SHASHIN-JIDAI Magazine by Nobuyoshi Araki et al. This rivalry relation of the two magazines and of SHINOYAMA's GEKISHA style and Araki's eccentric GUERILLA style accelerated the heated race for years through the former half of 1980s. Among regular photographers for The SHAGAKU Magazine were Hajime SAWATARI, Shuji YAMADA et al. / RELATED MATTERS: *1) In 1982, SHAGAKU Editorial Division of Shogakukan made an unusual kind of book which succeeded in winning everyone's attention. This was a small hard cover book named The Visual Consitution of Japan, a 'Shagaku Book', (1982 Shogakukan). a photo-illustrated visual reading book of Japan's post-war Constitution, texts both in Japanese and English. In spite that SHINOYAMA only joined this book with a image of snowing mountain village in which no model appeared, the small handbook sold very well (historically 7th position in the best-selling, longest-distributed books in Japan), so as later to be printed tens of times again and again till mid 1990s, when The SHAGAKU magazine was no more issued from Shogakukan publisher, but a later generation opinion magazine, SAPIO followed its role to distribute it by re-naming it a 'Sapio Book'. (Confirmed latest was 30th printing of Sapio Book issued on 1995.03.20) *2) Later in 1991 (The 3rd year of Heisei), SHINOYAMA's model books published from Asahi Shuppansha, Accidents 1: Water Fruit (1991.02.15), Accidnets 2: White Room (1991.09.15), and later Santa Fe (1991.11.13), were said to be the epoch-making books to liberate the exposure of the models' under hairs (these books acquired the Japanese way of naming 'hair nude books'), to finalize the long discussed essential matter on the freedom of expression that continued to be suspended throughout the long dark history of Showa Period.
== Согласные ==
{| class="wikitable"
!
![[Губные согласные|Губные]]
! [[Зубно-альвеолярные согласные|Зубно-]]<br />[[Альвеолярные согласные|альвеолярные]]
!colspan="2"|[[Ретрофлексные согласные|Ретрофлексные]]
! [[Альвео-палатальные согласные|Альвео-]]<br />[[Палатальные согласные|палатальные]]
![[Заднеязычные согласные|Заднеязычные]]
|-
![[Носовые согласные|Носовые]]
|{{IPA4|m}}
|{{IPA4|n}}
|colspan="2" |
|
|{{IPA4|ŋ}}
|-
![[Взрывные согласные|Взрывные]]
|{{IPA4|p}} {{IPA4|pʰ}}
|{{IPA4|t}} {{IPA4|tʰ}}
|colspan="2"|
|
|{{IPA4|k}} {{IPA4|kʰ}}
|-
![[Аффрикаты]]
|
| {{IPA4|t͡s}} {{IPA4|t͡sʰ}}
|colspan="2" | {{IPA4|ʈ͡ʂ}} {{IPA4|ʈ͡ʂʰ}}
| ({{IPA4|t͡ɕ}}) ({{IPA4|t͡ɕʰ}})
|
|-
! [[Фрикативные согласные|Фрикативные]]
|{{IPA4|f}}
|{{IPA4|s̪|s}}
|colspan="2"|{{IPA4|ʂ}}
|({{IPA4|ɕ}})
|{{IPA4|x}}
|-
![[Аппроксиманты]]
|
|[[Альвеолярный латеральный аппроксимант|l]]
|colspan="2"|{{IPA4|ɻ}}
|({{IPA4|j}}) ([[Лабиопалатальный аппроксимант|ɥ]])
|({{IPA4|w}})
|}
 
The SHASHIN JIDAI Magazine (1981-1988) and Erotic Trends after the early 1980's: Trends led by erotic photo magazines after major political themes during the 1960-1970ies have been seemingly lost its way or weakened (that is, in the years of indifference and decadence: SHIRAKE NO JIDAI) . Series of The SHASHIN JIDAI Magazine (1981.07 - 1988.04, Byakuya Shobo) by chief editor Akira SUEI and regular entries by Nobuyoshi ARAKI, Daido MORIYAMA, et al was the most famous and influencing one (First volume sold 140,000 copies, at its peak nearly 300,000 copies). Many young photographers were called to take part in these magazines. Early works had sociological viewpoints to watch human sexual-social behaviors changing quickly from time to time, but gradually overwhelmed by publishers' sales demands and readers' further curiosity and stronger requirements to see something more aggressive, fact-based documentary works or reportages gradually decreased and replaced more by staged fictions or pornography on the edge of legal/illegal borders.
{|class=wikitable style="margin:1em auto 1em auto"
!width="15%" align="center"|Фонема ищи звук
!width="70%"|Описание
!align="center" width="15"|Пиньинь
|-
|/{{IPA4|m}}/
|По сравнению с русским м китайский произносится с меньшим напряжением губ в тот момент, когда они после сомкнутого состояния резко раскрываются{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=35}}.
|''m''
|-
|/{{IPA4|n}}/
|При произнесении русского согласного н передняя честь спинки языка приподнимается к альвеолам и верхним зубам, а кончик языка лежит у нижних зубов. Нёбная занавеска занимает такое же положение, что и при произнесении согласного м. При артикуляции китайского согласного n изменяется лишь положение кончика языка, который касается альвеол. Русское н в фонетике называется дорсальным (подчеркивается основная роль спинки языка), китайское — апикальным (подчеркивается роль кончика языка){{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=36}}.
|''n''
|-
|/{{IPA4|ŋ}}/
|Like «ng» in English «sing»
|''ng''
|-
|/{{IPA4|p}}/
|Like English «p», but [[aspirated consonant|unaspirated]], as in «spy»
|''b''
|-
|/{{IPA4|pʰ}}/
|Like an aspirated English «p», as in «pie»
|''p''
|-
|/{{IPA4|t}}/
|Язык и губы при произнесении согласного [t] занимают такое же положение, что и при произнесении согласного [п]. Единcтвенное отличие этих двух согласных заключается в положении нёбной занавески, которая, как и при [p], приподнята. Китайский согласный [t] является апикальным и не смягчается перед гласными переднего ряда верхнего подъема{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=39}}.
|''d''
|-
|/{{IPA4|tʰ}}/
|Like an aspirated English «t», as in «tie»
|''t''
|-
|/{{IPA4|k}}/
|Русский согласный г образуется в результате смычки задней части спинки языка с передней частью мягкого нёба. В сравнении с русским китайский согласный [§] является более задним, то есть меото смычки сдвинуто несколько назад{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=39}}.
|''g''
|-
|/{{IPA4|kʰ}}/
|Like an aspirated English «k», as in «key»
|''k''
|-
|/{{IPA4|t͡s}}/
|Like English «t+s», without aspiration
|''z''
|-
|/{{IPA4|t͡sʰ}}/
|As above, with aspiration
|''c''
|-
|/{{IPA4|ʈ͡ʂ}}/
|Similar to «ch» in English «chat», without aspiration
|''zh''
|-
|/{{IPA4|ʈ͡ʂʰ}}/
|As above, with aspiration
|''ch''
|-
|[{{IPA4|t͡ɕ}}]
|Like an unaspirated English «ch», but with a [[palatal consonant|palatal]] (softer) pronunciation
|''j''
|-
|[{{IPA4|t͡ɕʰ}}]
|As above, with aspiration
|''q''
|-
|/{{IPA4|f}}/
|При образовании русского согласного ф воздух проходит через щель, образованную нижней губой и верхними зубами. Китайский согласный [f] артикулируется так же, как и русский, но с той лишь разницей, что губы при произнесении китайского звука несколько более растянуты, чем при произнесении русского ф. Согласный [f] в китайском языке никогда не сочетается с гласными переднего ряда верхнего подъема [i] и [у]{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=35}}.
|''f''
|-
|/[[Voiceless dental fricative|s]]/
|Согласный [s] относится к переднеязычным щелевым согласным. При произнесении русского согласного с кончик языка упирается в нижние зубы, 8 края языка прижаты к боковым зубам тэк, что посредине между передней частью языка и твердым нёбом образуется щель, сквозь которую с шумом проходит воздух. KитайскиЙ глухой согласный [s] отличается от русского положении кончика языка, который приподнят к твердому нёбу, точнее к альвеолам. В сравнении с русским согласным китайский согласный в
отличается большей воздушностью. Согласный [s] всегда твердый и никогда не встречается перед гласными переднего ряда высокого подъема{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=45}}.
|''s''
|-
|/{{IPA4|ʂ}}/
|Кончик языка загибается назад и образует у нижнего края альвеол, то есть несколько дальше, чем при русском ш, плоскую щель, а задняя часть спинки языка приподнята к мягкому нёбу, образуя вторую щель. Язык принимает ложкообразную форму, средняя часть спинки языка одущенэ вниз, причем положение языка в целом более прогнутое, чем при русском ш{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=46}}.
|''sh''
|-
|[{{IPA4|ɕ}}]
|При произнесении ɕ кончик языка упирается в нижние зубы, а средняя часть спинки языка поднимается высоко к твердому небу, причем все тело языка продвинуто вперед. Воздушный поток о шумом проходит сквозь ооразовившуюся щель. В сравнении о русским мягким согласным сь у китайского согласного более широкая щель, поэтому на слух согласный производит впечатление некоторой шепелявости, а при интенсивности воздушной струи — легкого приовиста (без участия губ){{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=57}}.
|''x''
|-
|/{{IPA4|x}}/
|В русском языке согласный х — заднеязычный, то есть произносится при сближении задней чэоти спинки языка с задним краем твердого нёба и смежной с ним частью мягкого нёба. При этом воздух проходит сквозь образовавшуюся щель, создавая шум глухого щелевого согласного. Китайский согласный [х] по сравнению с русским является более задним. Кроме того, при произнесении китайского согласного щель образуется сближением задней части спинки языка и мягкого нёба. Согласный [х] не
сочетается с гласным переднего ряда верхнего подъема{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=42}}.
|''h''
|-
|/[[Альвеолярный латеральный аппроксимант|l]]/
|Китайский согласный l от русского отличают два момента. Во-первых, кончик языка прижат к десенной части альвеол, то есть отодвинуть несколько дальше, чем при русском л; во-вторых, несколько ниже опущена спинка языка. В китайском языке согласный [1] перед [i] и [у] не смягчается{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=40}}.
|''l''
|-
|/{{IPA4|ɻ}}/
|По положению органов речи эвонкий согласный Гɻ] почти совпадает с глухим /ʂ/ , от которого его отличает более приподнятое положение кончика языка и более прогнутое положение спинки языка. Щель, через которую проходит воздух при произнесении китайского [ɻ], несколько меньше, чем при русском ж{{sfn|Спешнев|1980|с=46}}.
|''r''
|-
|[{{IPA4|j}}]
|Like «y» in English «you»
|''y'', medial ''i''
|-
|[{{IPA4|ɥ}}]
|Like «(h)u» in [[French phonology|French]] «huit»
|''yu'', medial ''ü'' and sometimes ''u''
|-
|[{{IPA4|w}}]
|Like «w» in English «wet»
|''w'', medial ''u''
|}
 
1996 アクションカメラ
==Несогласные==
1981-1988 https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/写真時代 The SHASHIN JIDAI Magazine (1981-1988) and Erotic Trends after the early 1980's: Trends led by erotic photo magazines after major political themes during the 1960-1970ies have been seemingly lost its way or weakened (that is, in the years of indifference and decadence: SHIRAKE NO JIDAI) . Series of The SHASHIN JIDAI Magazine (1981.07 - 1988.04, Byakuya Shobo) by chief editor Akira SUEI and regular entries by Nobuyoshi ARAKI, Daido MORIYAMA, et al was the most famous and influencing one (First volume sold 140,000 copies, at its peak nearly 300,000 copies). Many young photographers were called to take part in these magazines. Early works had sociological viewpoints to watch human sexual-social behaviors changing quickly from time to time, but gradually overwhelmed by publishers' sales demands and readers' further curiosity and stronger requirements to see something more aggressive, fact-based documentary works or reportages gradually decreased and replaced more by staged fictions or pornography on the edge of legal/illegal borders.
{|class=wikitable style="text-align:center; margin:1em auto 1em auto"
!Phoneme
!Allophone
!Phonetic contexts
!Description
!Pinyin contexts
|-
| rowspan="4" | {{IPA|/a/}}<br>(pinyin ''a'')
|{{IPAblink|ä}}
|Syllable-final
|Open central vowel
|''(-)a'' {{IPA|[ä]}}, ''ya/-ia'' {{IPA|[jä]}}, ''wa/-ua'' {{IPA|[wä]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|a}}
|Before /n/ (when not preceded by a palatal), or in diphthong with {{IPA|[ɪ̯]}}
|Open front vowel; the ''ai'' diphthong is similar to English "eye"
| ''(-)an'' {{IPA|[an]}}, ''wan/-uan'' {{IPA|[wan]}} (not after ''i/j/q/x/y'');<br>''(-)ai'' {{IPA|[aɪ̯]}}, ''wai/-uai'' {{IPA|[waɪ̯]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|ɑ}}
|Before [ŋ], or in diphthong with {{IPA|[ʊ̯]}}
|Open back vowel; the ''ao'' diphthong is similar to "ow" in English "cow"
|''(-)ang'' {{IPA|[ɑŋ]}}, ''yang/-iang'' {{IPA|[jɑŋ]}}, ''wang/-uang'' {{IPA|[wɑŋ]}};<br>''(-)ao'', {{IPA|[ɑʊ̯]}}, ''yao/-iao'' {{IPA|[jɑʊ̯]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|ɛ}}
|Before [n] in a syllable that begins with a palatal or includes a palatal glide
|Similar to English "e" in "pet" (some sources make additional distinctions). Analyzed as underlying {{IPA|/a/}} rather than {{IPA|/ǝ/}} because it becomes {{IPA|[ɐ]}} when a [[#Rhotic coda|rhotic coda]] is added.
|''yan/-ian'' {{IPA|[jɛn]}}, ''yuan'' and ''-uan'' after ''j/q/x'' {{IPA|[ɥɛn]}} (some speakers have {{IPA|[ɥan]}})
|-
| rowspan="6" | {{IPA|/ǝ/}}<br>(mostly pinyin<br>''e'' and ''o'')
|{{IPAblink|e}}
|In diphthong with {{IPA|[ɪ̯]}} (note ''wei'' often becomes {{IPA|[wiː]}} when [[#Tones|first tone]])
|Close-mid front vowel; the diphthong is similar to "ey" in English "hey"
|''-ei'' {{IPA|[eɪ̯]}}, ''wei/-ui'' {{IPA|[weɪ̯]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|ɛ}}
|Syllable-final, preceded by [j] (or palatals)
|Like in English "pet" (but less open than the allophone of /a/ described above)
|''ye/-ie'' {{IPA|[jɛ]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|œ}}
|Syllable-final, preceded by [ɥ] (or velarized palatals)
|As previous but with [[rounded vowel|lip rounding]]
|''yue/-üe'' and ''-ue'' after ''j/q/x'' {{IPA|[ɥœ]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|o}}
|Syllable-final, preceded by [w]
|Similar to [[French phonology|French]] "eau"
|''wo/-uo'' {{IPA|[wo]}}, also in ''bo'', ''po'', ''mo'', ''fo'' ({{IPA|[bʷo]}} etc.)
|-
|{{IPAblink|ɤ}}
|Syllable-final, not preceded by a glide or palatal
|As previous, but without lip rounding
|''(-)e'' {{IPA|[ɤ]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|ə}}
|Before {{IPA|[n], [ŋ]}}, or in diphthong with {{IPA|[u̯]}} (note ''you'' often becomes {{IPA|[yuː]}} when [[#Tones|first tone]])
|[[Schwa]]; the diphthong is similar to English "oh"
|''-en'' {{IPA|[ən]}}, ''wen/-un'' {{IPA|[wən]}};<br>''-eng'' {{IPA|[əŋ]}}, ''weng'' {{IPA|[wəŋ]}};<br>''(-)ou'' {{IPA|[əʊ̯]}}, ''you/-iu'' {{IPA|[jəʊ̯]}};
|-
| rowspan="3" | {{IPA|/i/}}<br>(pinyin ''i'', ''y'')
|{{IPAblink|i}}
|As main vowel of syllable
|Similar to the vowel of English "beat"
|''yi/-i'' {{IPA|[(j)i]}} (except after ''z/c/s/zh/ch/sh/r''), ''yin/-in'' {{IPA|[(j)in]}}, ''ying/-ing'' {{IPA|[(j)iŋ]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|j}}
|As syllable initial or medial (see [[#Glides|Glides]])
|Like English "y" as in "yes"
|''y-'', ''-i-'' [j]
|-
|{{IPA|[ɪ̯]}}
|As syllable coda (see the note on diphthongs, above)
|Non-syllabic vowel, like English "y" in "hey"
|''-i'' {{IPA|[ɪ̯]}}
|-
| rowspan="2" | {{IPA|/y/}}<br>(pinyin ''ü'',<br>sometimes ''u'')
|{{IPAblink|y}}
|As main vowel of syllable
|Like [[French phonology|French]] ''u'' or [[German phonology|German]] ''ü''
|''yu/-ü'' or ''u'' after ''j/q/x'' {{IPA|[(ɥ)y]}}, ''yun'' or ''un'' after ''j/q/x'' {{IPA|[(ɥ)yn]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|ɥ}}
|As syllable initial or medial (see [[#Glides|Glides]])
|Like French "(h)u" in "huit"
|''yu-'', ''-u-'' after ''j/q/x'' [ɥ]
|-
| rowspan="4" | {{IPA|/u/}}<br>(pinyin ''u'', ''w'',<br>and ''o'' before ''ng'')
|{{IPAblink|u}}
|As main vowel of syllable
|Similar to the vowel of English "boot"
|''wu/-u'' {{IPA|[(w)u]}} (except after ''i/y/j/q/x'')
|-
|{{IPAblink|ʊ}}
|Before [ŋ]
|Like in English "put"
|''-ong'' {{IPA|[ʊŋ]}}, ''yong/-iong'' {{IPA|[jʊŋ]}}
|-
|{{IPAblink|w}}
|As syllable initial or medial (see [[#Glides|Glides]])
|Like English "w" in "wet"
|''w-'', ''-u-'' [w]
|-
|{{IPA|[ʊ̯]}}
|As syllable coda (see the note on diphthongs, above)
|Non-syllabic vowel, like English "w" in "low"
|''-u'', or ''-o'' after ''a'' {{IPA|[ʊ̯]}}
|-
|{{IPA|/ɨ/}}
| colspan="4" | Occurs in the pinyin syllables ''zi'', ''ci'', ''si'' ''zhi'', ''chi'', ''shi'', ''ri''. Not always considered an independent phoneme. See [[#empty|below]].
|}
== Примечания ==
{{примечания}}