Террасное земледелие: различия между версиями

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{{редактирую|1=[[User:Dmitri Lytov|Dmitri Lytov]]|2=11:55, 3 ноября 2008 (UTC)}}
[[Image:Terrace_field_guangxi_longji_china.jpg|thumb|Террасные рисовые поля «LongjiЛунцзи» terraceв rice fields in [[Longsheng County,округе Guangxi|Longsheng]]Луншэн, [[Guangxi]]провинция ProvinceГуанси, southernюжный [[China]].Китай]]
[[Image:Rice terraces.png|thumb|right|210px|[[BanaueРисовые Riceтеррасы Terraces]]Банауэ, провинция Ифугао, [[Ifugao ProvinceФилиппины]], Philippines.]]
[[Image:Terrace field yunnan china.jpg|thumb|right|210px|AbstractАбстрактная patternсхема ofтеррасных terraceрисовых riceполей fieldsв inокруге [[Yuanyang County, Yunnan|Yuanyang]]Юаньян, [[Yunnan]]провинция ProvinceЮньнань, southernюжный [[China]].Китай]]
[[Image:Landscape in Sa Pa (Vietnam).jpg|thumb|210px|[[TerraceТеррасные (agriculture)|Terracedполя fields]]в inСа [[Sa Pa]]Па, VietnamВьетнам]]
Террасное земледелие — расположение культивируемых полей на нескольких уровнях холма, в виде широких ступеней. Метод используется с целью консервации почвы для замедления или недопущения быстрой эрозии поверхности из-за стока ирригационных вод. Метод распространён в Китае, Индокитае, Индонезии, Филиппинах. Традиционно использовался также в Южной Америке ещё со времён древнейших индейских государств (империя инков и др.), предположительно, в древнем Вавилоне ([[Висячие сады Семирамиды]]), в древнем Риме (Вилла Папирусов в Геркулануме). Такая форма земледелия особенно пригодна для культур, требующих большого количества воды — например, риса. Кроме того, на террасах легче осуществлять механический и ручной засев и сбор урожая, чем на плантациях равнинного типа.
In [[agriculture]], a '''terrace''' is a leveled section of a [[hill]]y cultivated area, designed as a method of [[soil conservation]] to slow or prevent the rapid [[surface runoff]] of [[irrigation]] water. Often such land is formed into multiple terraces, giving a stepped appearance. The human landscapes of [[rice]] cultivation in terraces that follow the natural contours of the escarpments like [[contour plowing]] is a classic feature of the island of [[Bali]] and the [[Banaue Rice Terraces]] in [[Benguet]], [[Philippines]]. In [[Peru]], the [[Tahuantinsuyu|Inca]] made use of otherwise unusable slopes by [[drystone wall]]ing to create terraces. This form of land use is prevalent in many countries, and is used for crops requiring a lot of water, such as rice. Terraces are also easier for both mechanical and manual sowing and harvesting than a steep slope would be.
Natural terracing, the result of small-scale erosion, is formed where cattle are grazed for long periods on steep sloping pasture. Sometimes, for example at [[Glastonbury Tor]], the result is regular enough to give an impression of archaeological [[Artifact (archaeology)|artifact]]s.
From its origins in agriculture the practice of formally [[Terrace (gardening)|terracing]] a sloping site evolved in gardening. The [[Hanging Gardens of Babylon]] could have been built on an artificial mountain with stepped terraces like those on a [[ziggurat]]. At the seaside [[Villa of the Papyri]] in [[Herculaneum]], the villa gardens of Julius Caesar’s father-in-law fell away giving pleasant and varied views of the Bay of Naples.
Terraces were also methods of soil conservation farming for the Inca. They used a system of [[canal]]s and [[aqueduct]]s, and made the water flow through dry land and helped them be fertile lands.
The Incas constructed the terraces on the slopes of the Andes mountains. They cut step-like ledges into the mountainside, so they could be used as field, where they planted crops. Using terraces also stopped the rain from washing away the soil. This technique was so successful, it is still used in the [[Andes Mountains]].
In old [[English language|English]], a terrace was also called a [[lynch]] and there is a fine example of a ''Lynch Mill'' in [[Lyme Regis]], for which the water arrives via a river ducted along a terrace. This set-up was used in steeply hilly areas in the [[UK]].
== См. также ==
* [[Сатояма]]
[[Категория:Физическая география]]