Мохаве (племя): различия между версиями

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{{редактирую|1=[[special:contributions/Dmitri Lytov|Dmitri Lytov]]|2=10 сентября 2009}}
[[Файл:Mohave Indians.jpg|thumb|right|Два индейца мохаве, одетых в набедренные повязки, запад штата Аризона. Фото: [[:en:TimothyТимоти H. OО'SullivanСалливан]], 1871]]
'''Мохаве''', {{lang-en|Mohave/Mojave}}, самоназвание ''Aha macave'', букв. «(живущие) вдоль воды» — племя индейцев, проживающее в настоящее время в двух резервациях на реке [[Колорадо (река)|Колорадо]].
The tribal headquarters, library and museum are in [[Parker, Arizona]], about 40 miles (64 km) north of [[Interstate 10 in Arizona|I-10]]. The National Indian Days Celebration is held annually in Parker, from Thursday through Sunday during the last week of September. The All Indian Rodeo is also celebrated annually, on the first weekend in December. RV facilities are available along the Colorado River.
== HistoryAncestral Lands ==
Much of the pre-surrender history of the Aha macave remains to be revealed and written, since they used no written symbols for their native language nor any dictionary of Mojave words; their language was spoken only. They depended on oral communication, in the form of totemic clan names, ancient stories and songs, to transmit their history and their literature from one generation to the next. The impact of outside culture shattered their social organization and fragmented the Aha macave’s stories and songs. They eventually learned to spell their own language phonetically according to the sounds and spellings of American English.
Now almost completely bilingual, their oral language is changing and the old wording of the stories and songs are not easily translated. Not only does the structure of the two languages differ, but the meaning of the words themselves, richly embedded with Mojave culture, idiom, and ancestral history, complicates non-native understanding.
As a prime example, their real tribal name has been spelled with over fifty variations, such as Hamock avi, Amacava, A-mac-ha ves, A-moc-ha-ve, Jamajabs, and Hamakhav. The resulting incorrect assumed meanings can be partly traced to a translation error in [[Frederick W. Hodge]]'s 1917 ''Handbook of the American Indians North of Mexico'', which incorrectly defined it, «Mohave (from hamock, three, avi, mountain).» According to this source, the name refers to the picturesque mountain peaks called the Needles, located near the Colorado River a few miles south of the city of [[Needles, California]]. Mojaves call these peaks ''Huqueamp avi'' which means, 'where the battle took place' It refers to the battle in which the God-son, Mastamho, slew the sea serpent.
=== Ancestral Lands ===
Before they surrendered to United States troops, their river holdings stretched from [[Black Canyon of the Colorado|Black Canyon]], where the tall pillars of First House of Mutavilya loomed above the river, past Avi kwame or [[Spirit Mountain, Nevada|Spirit Mountain]], the center of spiritual things, to the Quechan Valley, where the lands of other tribes began. Translated into present landmarks, their lands began in the north at [[Hoover Dam]] and ended about one hundred miles below [[Parker Dam]].
=== Religion ===
The Mohave believed in their creator [[Mutavilya]], who gave them their names and their commandments, and in his son [[Mastamho]], who gave them the river and taught them how to plant. They were mainly farmers who planted in the overflow of the untamed river, following the age-old customs of the Aha macave.
=== Language ===
The [[Mojave language]] belongs to the River Yuman branch of the [[Yuman-Cochimí languages|Yuman-Cochimí]] linguistic family. It consists of about ten languages and various dialects, with speakers ranging from [[Baja California]] and northern [[Sonora]] in [[Mexico]], to southern [[California]] and western [[Arizona]] in the [[United States]].
=== Post-conquest ===
In mid-April, 1859, United States troops of the Expedition of the Colorado, led by Lieutenant Colonel William Hoffman, moved upriver into Mojave country, with the well-publicized objective of establishing a military post on the river to protect east-west emigrants from attack by Mojave Indians. By that time, white immigrants and settlers had begun to encroach on Mojave lands, sometimes violently, and members of the clans had been defending their territory similarly. Hoffman sent couriers among the tribes, warning that the post would be gained by force if they or their allies chose to resist. Instead, it was a bloodless occupation. The Mojave warriors withdrew as Hoffman’s formidable armada approached and the expedition posted camp near what would later become [[Fort Mojave Indian Reservation|Fort Mojave]].
Sherer’s research revealed that in 1963, the population of Fort Mojaves was 438 and that of the Colorado River Reservation approximately 550.
== Names ==
Mohave names are typically only capitalized on the first word, with the following words all in lowercase. Therefore a Mohave joke name would be rendered, for example, «My leg is made out of yellow pine» and not «My Leg Is Made Out Of Yellow Pine» as in the European / Westernized tradition. This was the name of a Mohave man, Hoalye-ime, who lived around 1844: he once saw a «beaver eater» («white man») with a [[peg leg]], and he was so amused that he pretended to also have a wooden leg.
A Mohave «joke name» (roughly analogous to [[nickname]]s) was one that a Mohave would assign herself or himself, or a friend would assign to someone. «Face like a horse» would be one example; «Kicked in the head by the sun» another. Some joke names are not funny at all, but were teasing and abusive, but a Mohave was socially bound to put up with it.
== Mohave Behavior ==
No aspect of social life is more elusive and less amenable to systematic study than are so-called «good manners» as distinct from basic personality traits. Yet information of this sort is an indispensable part of [[Anthropology|anthropological]] study. The present study deals chiefly with the etiquette of ordinary social relations, since the etiquette of courtship has already been described elsewhere. (1)
=== Sitting ===
Mohave men had two traditional sitting positions, both of which may still be observed among the older members of the tribe. Men who sat on the ground usually leaned their backs against a wall or a tree, and extended their legs in front of them. They were free to cross their legs, if they chose to do so. Men who preferred to sit on their heels, in a kneeling posture, rested the dorsal surface of one foot on the sole of the other foot.
The traditional sitting position of women was described by [[Alfred L. Kroeber|Kroeber]] (1,4) as follows: «Women at rest stretch their legs straight out, and sometimes cross their feet. At work, a Mohave woman tucks one leg under her, with her other knee up . . . When she pleases, the Mohave woman also sits with her legs folded in oriental style.» The Mohave specified that women were careful to arrange the tassels of their fiber-skirts in such a manner as to avoid exposure. Hence, whenever the thighs were spread, some of the tassels were made to hang down between the legs. Male [[Two-Spirit]]s sat like women and observed the same proprieties.
Only close relatives of opposite sexes, or else husband and wife, were permitted to share the same bench or wagon or automobile seat. This is not an inflexible rule, though it is usually broken with some embarrassment on behalf of those involved. The rule that unrelated persons of the opposite sexes should not share the same car seat can be readily linked with the Mohave belief that thoughts or daydreams about traveling with a member of the opposite sex induces amorous desires.
=== Women ===
[[Файл:Mohave - Judith.jpg|thumb|Judith, a young Mohave woman about eighteen
years of age. [[Edward S. Curtis]], c. 1903]]
A woman who is [[walking]] home alone should not talk to men whom she happens to meet on the way. A «good woman» does not walk with men, nor does she ride with them in a wagon, unless the man happens to be her husband or a close relative.
A woman may [[human swimming|swim]] either alone or else in the company of her husband or close relatives. If a man happens to be already swimming at the spot where she had intended to swim, she is supposed to look for another place. Should she violate this rule, she will expose herself to criticism and to gossip. This rule is frequently violated, however.
Women are permitted to [[dance]] at gatherings. They must, however, dance «in a decent way» and must not attract attention through cocky talk or through impish and showy behavior.
A woman may eat from the same dish only with her husband, her ascendants, descendants, siblings, and first cousins, i.e., only with persons who are so closely related to her that no one would suspect them of 'carrying on'. Should a woman wish to share a fruit with a man who is neither her husband nor a close relative, she must divide the fruit and give the man his share before biting into it.
=== Hospitality ===
The Mohave are most warlike. But when they weren’t fighting they were most hospitable. If a visitor should come while a meal was being eaten or prepared, the visitor would be invited to join the meal. If they didn’t, the tribe would be very embarrassed.
=== Eating ===
The Mohave are great eaters and are pleased when their guests eat heartily. It is permissible to belch and to pick one’s teeth.
The Mohave call [[chewing gum]] halyak. In aboriginal times this term designated a certain native chewing substance which was prepared from a vine called halyak.
=== Tobacco ===
The Mohave do not seem to chew plugs of tobacco.
The Mohave of both sexes are very fond of [[cigarette]]s. Anyone who takes out a pack of cigarettes is expected to offer a cigarette to all those who happen to be present, before helping himself. Should one fail to do so, one exposes oneself to a reprimand or to a jeer. It should be pointed out, however, that Mohave smoking etiquette is based on the principle of reciprocity. Hence they do not beg for cigarettes, nor do they demand cigarettes from any chance-met stranger.
A Mohave man is not supposed to light the cigarette of a woman who is neither a wife nor a close relative.
The Mohave do not inhale while lighting their cigarettes. This habit may be due to the fact that the first matches to reach the Mohave were made with sulfur. They hold the cigarette in one hand and the match in the other hand, and toast the tip of the cigarette until it is lit. Only then do they bring the cigarette to their lips. As a rule, only men appear to inhale the smoke, while women, as well as male transvestites, seem to refrain from doing so.
The Mohave Indians also smoke small clay-pipes, and are much impressed with the skill of certain people who manage to smoke an entire [[Smoking pipe|pipe]] in four puffs.
=== Photography ===
Mohave custom demands that the body as well as the property of the dead should be [[Cremation|cremated]]. (7,13,15) The preservation of [[photograph]]s would be an especially offensive violation of this rule, since it preserves "the shadow, « i.e., [[soul]] (1) of the dead. Hence the Mohave are very reluctant to be photographed and resent any attempt to photograph them by stealth.
=== Human Relations ===
[[Файл:Edward S. Curtis Collection People 015.jpg|thumb|[[1908]] photograph of a Mohave woman and child carrying water.]]
The Mohave are an emotional people, and the sharing of emotions is an important feature of social relations.
The Mohave differentiate between „laughing with“ and „laughing at“ (4) people, and are quite sensitive to ridicule. On the other hand shared [[laughter]] is believed to be an expression of good-fellowship and of a friendly disposition. Unlike the Yuma (12) they believe that men and women laugh alike, except for the fact that the laughter of men has a deeper pitch. They also differentiate between laughter and provocative giggling.
Shared [[grief]] is likewise an expression of good-fellowship. The Mohave are ready to share the grief of their friends, and men do not consider it below their dignity to shed a few tears. A refusal to allow one’s friends to share one’s troubles is resented.
The Mohave sometimes disguise their sadness under an appearance of „being cross.“ Unemotional people are believed to be insensitive and lacking in human feelings.
Generosity is taken so much for granted that it must be thought of as a basic personality trait (4) rather than as a form of etiquette. The charge of stinginess is the most damning accusation that can be leveled at a person.
Loyalty to one’s friends is a pivotal point of Mohave social ethics. It is an unforgivable sin to speak ill of one’s friends and associates behind their backs, and disloyalty is one of the things that will cause a person to be known as „worthless“ or as „a bad person.“ Wanton indiscretion, especially about love affairs, is likewise condemned, and is said to be characteristic only of psychopathic prostitutes (kamalo:y). (10)
The Mohave are eager for praise and freely praise those whom they like. „A good person“ is a term of high praise. The highest praise that can be given to an alien is, „He is just like a Mohave.“ This form of praise has been reported as far back as the XVII Century.» The Mohave often express their friendship and approval by mercilessly «razzing» the person they happen to like. If a woman slanders a man and refers to his dead relatives, the man feels certain that the woman loves him.
Mohave Indian courtesy does not partake of the elaborately ritual character of, for example, [[China|Chinese]] etiquette. It is, with a few small exceptions, chiefly the etiquette of good sense and of the heart, which is the foundation of all real courtesy. The terms «a good man» or «a good woman» also imply good manners. In brief, Mohave courtesy is completely characterized by a line in a play by Alfred de Musset: «Polite indeed! My coachman is polite! In my time, men were courteous.» The essence of Mohave courtesy is identical with that of the early Renaissance concept of «cortesia» — it is the [[considerateness]] of kind and fair minded people.'
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