Микмаки: различия между версиями

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== История ==
 
The Míkmaw territory was divided into seven traditional «districts». Each district had its own independent government and boundaries. In addition to the district councils, there was also a Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi. The Grand Council composed of «Keptinaq», or Captains in English, who were the district chiefs. Also Elders, the Putús (Wampum belt reader, historian, and dealt with the treaties with the non-natives and other Native tribes), the women council, and the Grand Chief. The Grand Chief was a title given to one of the district chiefs, which was usually from the Míkmaq district of Unamáki or Cape Breton Island. This title was hereditary and usually went to the Grand Chief’s eldest son. The Grand Council met on a little island on the Bras d’Or lake in Cape Breton called «Mniku», on a reserve today call Chapel Island or Potlotek<ref>CBCnews. [http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/07/31/chapel-island050731.html Cape Breton Míkmaq site recognized]</ref>. To this day, the Grand Council still meet at the Mniku to discuss current issues within the Míkmaq Nation.
 
Некоторое время существовал союз между микмаками и [[беотуки|беотуками]], однако случайный конфликт (убийство микмакским мальчиком беотукского в ссоре) привёл к крупной войне, в которой микмаки победили и оттеснили беотуков с части земель<ref>http://www.indianheadfirstnations.com/mikmaqlegends.htm</ref>.
Later the Míkmaq also settled Newfoundland as the unrelated [[Beothuk]] tribe became extinct. Míkmaq delegates concluded the first international treaty with the [[United States]] soon after its [[United States Declaration of Independence|declaration of independence]], the [[Treaty of Watertown]], in July 1776. These delegates did not officially represent the Mi’kmaq government, although many individual Mi’kmaq did privately join the Continental army as a result.
 
== Культура до контакта с европейцами ==
== Celebrations ==
 
=== HousingДома ===
In the Canadian provinces of [[Nova Scotia]] and [[Newfoundland and Labrador]], October is celebrated as Míkmaq History Month and the entire Nation celebrates Treaty Day annually on [[October 1]]. This was first signified in the year, 1752, with the Peace and Friendship Treaty (also called the Treaty of 1752) signed by Chief Cope of Shubenacadie, representing all of the Míkmaq people, and the king’s representative. It was stated that if the natives would be given gifts annually, «as long as they continued in Peace.»<ref>Treaty of 1752</ref>{{fact|date=June 2009}}
 
== Pre-Contact Culture ==
 
=== Housing ===
Mi’kmaq people lived in structures called wigwams. Saplings, which were usually spruce, were cut down and bent over a circle drawn on the ground. These saplings were lashed together at the top, and then covered with birch bark. The Mi’kmaq had two different sizes of wigwams, the smaller size, could hold 10-15 people, and the larger size, could hold 15-20 people.
 
=== FoodПища/Huntingохота ===
The Mi’kmaq were semi-nomadic. During the summer they spent most of their time on the shores harvesting seafood; during the winter they would move inland to the woods to hunt. The most important animal hunted by the Mi’kmaq was the moose which provided food, clothing, cordage, and other things. Other animals hunted/trapped included deer, caribou, bear, rabbit, beaver, and others. The weapon used most for hunting was the bow and arrow. The Mi’kmaq made their bows from maple.
 
Лось был наиболее важным животным для микмаков — это был их основной источник мяса, одежды и cordage, all crucial things to the well-being of the community. The Mi’kmaq usually hunted moose in groups of 3-5 men. Before the moose hunt, the Mi’kmaq would starve their dogs for 2 days, this way they would be fierce in helping to finish off the moose. To kill the moose, they would injure it first, by using a bow and arrow, or other weapons, and after it was down, they would move in on it and finish it off with spears, and their attacking dogs. The guts would then be fed to the dogs. During this whole process, the men would try to direct the moose in the direction of the camp, this way the women would not have to go as far to drag the moose back. A boy became a man in the eyes of the community after he had killed his first moose. It was only then he had earned the right to marry.
 
== OtherПраздники ==
 
One spiritual capital of the Míkmaq nation is Mniku, the gathering place of the Míkmaq Grand Council or Santé Mawiómi, Chapel Island in the [[Bras d'Or Lakes]] of [[Cape Breton Island]]. The island is also the site of the St. Anne Mission, an important pilgrimage site for the Míkmaq. The island has been declared a historic site.<ref>CBCnews. [http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/07/31/chapel-island050731.html Cape Breton Míkmaq site recognized]</ref>
In the Canadian provinces of [[Nova Scotia]] and [[Newfoundland and Labrador]], October is celebrated as Míkmaq History Month and the entire Nation celebrates Treaty Day annually on [[October 1]]. This was first signified in the year, 1752, with the Peace and Friendship Treaty (also called the Treaty of 1752) signed by Chief Cope of Shubenacadie, representing all of the Míkmaq people, and the king’s representative. It was stated that if the natives would be given gifts annually, «as long as they continued in Peace.»<ref>Treaty of 1752</ref>{{fact|date=June 2009}}
 
== См. также ==
[[Категория:Индейцы Вудленда]]
[[Категория:Квебек]]
[[Категория:Ньюфаундленд]]
 
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