Саураштра: различия между версиями

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'''Саураштра''' ({{lang-gu|સૌરાષ્ટ્ર}}, {{lang-hi|सौराष्ट्र}}) is a region of western [[India]], located on the [[Arabian Sea]] coast of [[Gujarat]] state. It is a peninsula also called [[Kathiawar]] after the [[Kathi (caste)|Kathi Darbar]] rulers who ruled part of the region once. The Peninsula is shared with the [[Kachchh]] region which occupies the north, Saurashtra or Sorath forming the southern portion.
== History ==
Surastrene, or [[Saraostus]] is mentioned in the 1st century CE [[Periplus of the Erythraean Sea]]: {{cquotetxt
[[ImageФайл:Gujarat Gulfs.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Saurashtra in between [[Gulf of Kutch]] and [[Gulf of Khambat]]. Image [[NASA Earth Observatory]]]]
[[ImageФайл:EpicIndia.jpg|thumb|175px|right|Map of ancient Indian kingdoms.]]
Sorath was the former name of the Muslim-ruled Princely State of [[Junagadh]] ("«Junagarh"» or the "«Old City"»). During British rule, Junagadh and its neighboring princely states were supervised by the [[Western India States Agency]] (WISA). In 1947, Junagadh'sJunagadh’s Muslim ruler desired to accede his territory to Pakistan, but the predominantly Hindu population rebelled, and while he fled to Pakistan, a plebiscite was conducted as a result of which the kingdom was merged into the Indian Union.
=== Saurashtra state ===
After India'sIndia’s independence in 1947, 217 [[princely states]] of Kathiawar and Saurashtra, including the former kingdom of Junagadh, were grouped together to form the state of Saurashtra in 1948. The capital of Saurashtra was [[Rajkot]]. Uchharangray Navalshankar Dhebar (1905-19771905—1977) became the first Chief Minister. He was succeeded by Rasiklal Umedchand Parikh (born 1910) on 19 December, 1954.
On November 1, 1956, Saurashtra was merged into [[Bombay state]]. And Bombay state called as State of Saurashtra also. In 1960 Bombay state was divided along linguistic lines into the new states of [[Gujarat]] and [[Maharashtra]]. The territory of Saurashtra, including that of the former kingdom of Sorath or Junagadh is now part of the state of [[Gujarat]].
== Communities ==
Saurashtra is home to a number of communities that are unique to the region. The Leuva Patel,Kadva Patel,[[Nagar Brahmins]], [[Kathiawadi Memons]], the [[Kathi (caste)|KathiKathis]]s and [[Khant (caste)|KhantKhants]]s, [[Turk Jamat]] Karadia Rajput, [[Koli]] are some of them. The Siddi are to this day unique with their roots in Africa.
== Postage stamps ==
The first [[postage stamp]]s of the state were issued for Junagadh in 1864. They consisted of three lines of Hindi script in colorless letters on black, and were produced by handstamping with [[watercolor]] ink. A second issue, in 1868 used colored letters, printed in black or red on several colors of paper.
The issue of 1877 was the first to include Latin letters; the circular design included the inscription "«SORUTH POSTAGE"» at the top, and "«ONE ANNA OF A RUPEE"» (or "«FOUR ANNAS..."ANNAS…») at the bottom. Some of these were [[surcharge]]d in 1913-14, followed by redesigned stamps in 1914.
The next issue came in 1923, and featured a portrait of Nawab [[Mahabat Khan III]], along with the inscription "«SAURASHTRA POSTAGE"». A set of eight stamps in 1929 including pictures of Junagadh, the [[Gir Lion]], and the [[Kathi Horse]] in addition to the Nawab. In 1937 the one [[Indian anna|anna]] value was reissued reading "«POSTAGE AND REVENUE"».
The Indian province of Saurashtra did not design any of its own stamps, but before adopting the stamps of India, Saurashtra issued a court fee [[Postage stamp|stamp]] overprinted for postal use, then created more one [[Indian anna|anna]] stamps by surcharging three stamps of the 1929 issue.
== See alsoПримечания ==
* [[State Bank of Saurashtra]]
*[[2006 Gujarat earthquake]]
== Литература ==
* Ron Wood, ''Soruth'' (Handbook of Indian Philately, Series 2, Hampshire, UK: The India Study Circle for Philately, 1999)
==Further reading==
* Ron Wood, ''Soruth'' (Handbook of Indian Philately, Series 2, Hampshire, UK: The India Study Circle for Philately, 1999)
Further information regarding the culture and people of saurashtra can be found in the works of [[Harilal Upadhyay]], well known Gujarati author.
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[[CategoryКатегория:Государства в истории Индии]]
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