Саураштра: различия между версиями

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'''Саураштра''' ({{lang-gu|સૌરાષ્ટ્ર}}, {{lang-hi|सौराष्ट्र}}), также '''Соратх''' — регион в [[Западная Индия|Западной Индии]], в современном индийском штате [[Гуджарат]]. Расположен на юге полуострова [[Катхиявар]] в [[Аравийское море|Аравийском море]]. Северную часть полуострова занимает регион [[Кач]]. Первое упоминание о Саураштре содержится в «[[Перипл Эритрейского моря|Перипле Эритрейского моря]]» ([[I век]]). В период мусульмансого господства, на территории Саураштры располагалось княжество [[Джунагадх]]. После получения Индией независимости в 1947 году, мусульманский правитель захотел, чтобы Джунагадх вошёл в состав [[Пакистан]]а. Однако, преимущественно индуистское население княжества взбунтовалось. Был проведён [[плебисцит]], в результате которого большинство поселениянаселения высказалось за то, чтобы Джунагадх вошёл в состав Индии. В 1948 году, на базе 217 княжеств (включая Джунагадх) был образован штат Саураштра, столицей которого стал город [[Раджкот]]. 1 ноября 1956 штат Саураштра вошёл в состав [[Бомбейская провинция|Бомбейской провинции]], которая в 1960 году была разделена по языковому признаку на два новых штата — [[Махараштра|Махараштру]] и Гуджарат. Саураштра вошла в состав последнего.
 
В 1948 году 217 княжеств of Kathiawar and Saurashtra, including the former kingdom of Junagadh, were grouped together to form the state of Saurashtra in 1948. The capital of Saurashtra was [[Rajkot]]. Uchharangray Navalshankar Dhebar (1905—1977) became the first Chief Minister. He was succeeded by Rasiklal Umedchand Parikh (born 1910) on 19 December, 1954.
 
On November 1, 1956, Saurashtra was merged into [[Bombay state]]. And Bombay state called as State of Saurashtra also. In 1960 Bombay state was divided along linguistic lines into the new states of [[Gujarat]] and [[Maharashtra]]. The territory of Saurashtra, including that of the former kingdom of Sorath or Junagadh is now part of the state of [[Gujarat]].
 
== Language ==
Saurashtra (alternate names and spellings: Sourashtra, Sowrashtra, pattunulkaarar,Palkar, Saurashtri) is also the name of an [[Indo-Aryan languages|Indo-Aryan]] [[language]] of Kathiawar-Saurashtra.
 
== Communities ==
 
Saurashtra is home to a number of communities that are unique to the region. The Leuva Patel,Kadva Patel,[[Nagar Brahmins]], [[Kathiawadi Memons]], the [[Kathi (caste)|Kathis]] and [[Khant (caste)|Khants]], [[Turk Jamat]] Karadia Rajput, [[Koli]] are some of them. The Siddi are to this day unique with their roots in Africa.
 
== Postage stamps ==
The first [[postage stamp]]s of the state were issued for Junagadh in 1864. They consisted of three lines of Hindi script in colorless letters on black, and were produced by handstamping with [[watercolor]] ink. A second issue, in 1868 used colored letters, printed in black or red on several colors of paper.
 
The issue of 1877 was the first to include Latin letters; the circular design included the inscription «SORUTH POSTAGE» at the top, and «ONE ANNA OF A RUPEE» (or «FOUR ANNAS…») at the bottom. Some of these were [[surcharge]]d in 1913-14, followed by redesigned stamps in 1914.
 
The next issue came in 1923, and featured a portrait of Nawab [[Mahabat Khan III]], along with the inscription «SAURASHTRA POSTAGE». A set of eight stamps in 1929 including pictures of Junagadh, the [[Gir Lion]], and the [[Kathi Horse]] in addition to the Nawab. In 1937 the one [[Indian anna|anna]] value was reissued reading «POSTAGE AND REVENUE».
 
The Indian province of Saurashtra did not design any of its own stamps, but before adopting the stamps of India, Saurashtra issued a court fee [[Postage stamp|stamp]] overprinted for postal use, then created more one [[Indian anna|anna]] stamps by surcharging three stamps of the 1929 issue.
 
== Литература ==