Млеччха: различия между версиями

8927 байт убрано ,  9 лет назад
Нет описания правки
'''Млеччха''' ({{lang-sa|म्लेच्छ}}, {{IAST|mleccha}}, «неведийский, [[варвар]]ский»)  — [[термин]], которым в Древней Индии называли чужеземцев, неариев. В Древней Индии, термин ''млеччха'' имел похожее значение со словом ''варвар'' в древней Греции и Риме. Так как чужеземцы не следовали ведической культуре, арии называли всех иностранцев млеччхами. Млеччхи не принадлежали ни к одной из четырёх [[Варны|варн]] древнеиндийского общества и потому имели крайне низкий социальный статус. Термин млеччха не упоминается в [[Веды|Ведах]] и впервые встречается в «[[Шатапатха-брахмана|Шатапатха-брахмане]]».
{{редактирую|Ilya Mauter}}
'''Млеччха''' ({{lang-sa|म्लेच्छ}}, {{IAST|mleccha}}, «неведийский, [[варвар]]ский») — [[термин]], которым в Древней Индии называли чужеземцев, неариев. В Древней Индии, термин ''млеччха'' имел похожее значение со словом ''варвар'' в древней Греции и Риме. Млеччхи не принадлежали ни к одной из четырёх [[Варны|варн]] древнеиндийского общества и потому имели низкий социальный статус.
 
=== Foreigners ===
In ancient India, this term was also applied by the Aryan kingdoms to foreigners{{Fact|date=June 2008}}.
The '''[[India]]ns ''' referred to all alien cultures that were less civilized in ancient times as 'Mlechcha'<ref>Mudrarakshasha by [[Kashinath Trimbak Telang]] introduction p12 [http://books.google.com/books?id=VL0IAAAAQAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=inauthor:Kashinath+inauthor:Telang&lr=&as_drrb_is=q&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false]</ref> or [[Barbarians]]. The [[Mlechcha]]s were people who were barbaric{{Clarifyme|date=January 2009}} and who had given up the [[Hinduism|Vedic]] beliefs.<ref>Manusamriti, X/43-44; A comparative grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian family of languages, 1875, p 5,Robert Caldwell; Early Chauhān dynasties:, 1959, p 243, Dasharatha Sharma — History; The Aryans, a Modern Myth, 1993, p 211,Parameśa Caudhurī — History.</ref> Among the tribes termed Mlechcha were [[Sakas]], [[Huna (people)|Hunas]], [[Yavana]]s, [[Kambojas]], [[Pahlavas]], [[Bahlikas]] and [[Rishikas]].<ref>National geographer, 1977, p 60, Allahabad Geographical Society — History.</ref> The Amara-kosa described the [[Kiratas]],Sabaras and [[Pulindas]] as the Mleccha-jatis.[[Rajput]], [[Abhira]], [[Gujars]], [[Indo-Greeks]], [[Scythians]],<ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=yltjAAAAMAAJ&q=gurjara+were+mleccha&dq=gurjara+were+mleccha&hl=en&ei=G9iSTcjHLs7zcZKgqIkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CD0Q6AEwBA</ref> [[Kushan]]as,<ref>Language multiplicity and ancient races in India</ref>[[Kalinga]] and [[Pandya]] were also mlecchas.<ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fK3VTUrWsD0C&pg=PA158&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=gurjara&f=false</ref><ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fK3VTUrWsD0C&pg=PA158&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=abhira&f=false</ref>
 
=== Fierce Warriors ===
In the epic [[Mahabharata]], some Mleccha warriors are described as having "heads completely shaved or half-shaved or covered with matted locks, [as being] impure in habits, and of crooked faces<ref>."Mlecchas in early India: a study in attitudes towards outsiders upto AD 600</ref> They are «dwellers of hills» and «denizens of mountain-caves.Mlecchas were born of the [[cow]] (belonging to [[Vasishtha]]), of fierce eyes, accomplished in smiting looking like messengers of Death, and all conversant with the deceptive powers of the Asuras»<ref>[http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/m07/m07089.htm Mahabharata, Drona Parva, Section 92].</ref>
[[Chanakya]] refers to mleccha forces once attacked [[Chandragupta]].An old [[sanskrit]] verse found in the ancient work on astrology identifies Mlecchas with [[Yavanas]] or [[Greeks]].It says ''Mleccha hi yavanstesthu samyak shastramidam sthitam''.By this verse means that mleccha, that is Yavana, were expert in the acience of astronomy.
 
Chanakya also comes to know that five kings-Chitravarma, King of Kulu, Simhanad,King of Malayadesha,Pushkarakhsa, King of [[Kashmir]], Sindhushena, king of [[Sindh]], Megha king of [[Persia]] are five main pillars of the army of Mleccha king.<ref>History of Indian theatre, Volume 3 By Manohar Laxman Varadpande</ref><ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fOZB7MbeMrAC&pg=PA224&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFQQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=mleccha&f=false</ref>
 
=== Against Pandavas ===
According to ''Swami Parmeshwaranand'' Mleccha tribe was born from the tail of the celectial cow Nandini, kept by Sasista for sacrificial purposes when there was a fight between [[Vishvamitra]] and [[Vasistha]].[[Mahabharat]]a gives the following information regarding them:-
* Mleccha who sprand up from the tail of the celectial cow Nandini sent the army of Viswamitra flying in terror.
* Bhagadatta was the king of mlecchas.
* [[Pandavas]], like [[Bhim]]sean, [[Nakul]] and [[Sahadeva]] once defeated them.
* [[Karan]]a during his world campaign conquered many mlaccha countries.
* The wealth that remained in the Yagasala of [[Yudhisthira]] after the distribution as gifts to [[Brahmin]]s was taken away by the mlecchas.
* The melecchas drove angered elephants on the army of the Pandavas.
«This shows mlecchas were against Pandavas and Brahmins».<ref>Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Puranas: (A-C) ; 2.(D-H) ; 3.(I-L) ; 4.(M-R) ; 5 … By Swami Parmeshwaranand</ref><ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=QxPCBCk3wVIC&pg=PA882&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=mleccha&f=false</ref>
 
=== Areas of Melecchas ===
Together with the shift eastwards of the 'pure land' the northern [[Punjab, India|Punjab]] and trans-[[Indus]] region came to be regarded as ''mleccha-desa'. Later Vedic literature speaks of the western Anava tribes as mlecchas and occupying northern Punjab,[[Sindh]] and eastern [[Rajasthan]], as also the eastern Anava tribes occupying parts of [[Bihar]], [[Bengal]] and [[Orissa]].The tribes of the north were mlecchas either because they were located on the frontiers such as [[Gandhara]] and [[Kamboja]] and therefore both their speech and culture had become contaminated and differed from that of ''aryavart'', or else, as in the case of [[Madras]], they were once aryas but having forsaken the rituals were regarded to mleccha status.<ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fK3VTUrWsD0C&pg=PA158&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=snippet&q=mlecchas&f=false</ref>
 
=== Language ===
Prof.Vasudeava Sharana Agrawala admits that the Indians were familiar with the mleccha language right from the time of Satapatha Brahmans.In support of the contention he quotes the Mbh.(''Adi Parva,2/103''), which refers to the talks between [[Vidur]] and [[Yudhisthira]] in mleccha language.The latter explained the mleccha.language to [[Kunti]] in sanskrit, because it was indistinct for her.During the epic age some people having acquaintance with the Asuras used to speak their mleccha language.
The ''Jaimini Dharmasastra''(1.3.10) mentions certain mleccha words i.e pika, nema, sata and tamaras meaning respectively a bird, a half, a vessel, a red lotus which are sanskritized versions of words used in the dravidian languages.It means that the mleccha words were in use among the non Aryans.<ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=ifnJPROKjSUC&pg=PA305&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEQQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=mleccha&f=false</ref><ref>Researches into the history and civilization of the Kirātas By G. P. Singh</ref>
 
=== Vedas ===
The term is not attested in the [[Veda]]s, but occurs for the first time in the late Vedic text [[Shatapatha Brahmana]]. The law giver [[Baudhayana|Baudhâyana]] defines a Mleccha as someone «who eats meat or indulges in self-contradictory statements or is devoid of righteousness and purity of conduct». Mleccha in [[Hinduism]] could refer to any being who has different teachings than Hinduism and does not follow the Vedas. In the Indian history some indigenous rulers in [[Assam]] were called Mlechhas ([[Mlechchha dynasty]]).
In the [[Bhagavata Purana]] the term is used in the context of meat eaters, outcastes. Medieval Hindu literature, such as that of [[Chaitanya Mahaprabhu]], also uses the term to refer to those of larger groups of other religions, especially [[Muslim]]s.<ref>[http://vedabase.net/m/mleccha Vedabase].</ref>
 
=== Mlecchas eating habits ===
The sanskritizing of names was a common feature among both indigenous and foreign mlecchas who slowly tried to move away from their status of mleccha. Very often, in the case of ruling families, it took one to two generations to make a transition. One of the most direct forms of the expression of the brahmanical ritual purity was the form and type of food which a brahman could eat. He was forbidden to accept cooked food from any nonbrahman. Thus when the [[Punjab region|Punjab]] became a mleccha area the staple food was given a lower place in the food-ranking. Whereas Rigvedic Aryans had a staple diet of [[wheat]] and [[barley]], by the twelfth century AD wheat was described in one lexicon as 'food of the mlecchas' and [[rice]] became the 'pure' cereal. [[Onions]] and [[garlic]] were also regarded as the food of the mlecchas and therefore prohibited to the brahman. Mlecchas drank [[alcohol]] and ate flesh of the cow, and this in later periods was strictly forbidden to the Aryan twice-born.<ref>http://books.google.co.in/books?id=fK3VTUrWsD0C&pg=PA158&dq=mleccha&hl=en&ei=eL-STYHkMcKdcZPjtYkH&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDsQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=mleccha&f=false</ref><ref>Ancient Indian Social History: Some Interpretations By Romila Thapar</ref>
 
== Other ==
[[Republic of Venice]] was called ''Mletačka Republika'' in [[Croatian language]] and Venetians were called ''Mletci'' or ''Mleci''. The term designates stranger or alien.
 
== See also ==
* [[Mlechchha dynasty]]
* [[Pala dynasty (Kamarupa)]]
* [[Dasa]]
 
== Notes ==
{{reflist}}
 
== External links ==
 
{{Hinduism footer small}}
 
[[Категория:Varnas in Hinduism]]