Терморегуляция: различия между версиями

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'''Терморегуляция''' — это способность [[животное|животных]] [[организм]]ов поддерживать [[температура|температуру]] тела в определённых границах, даже если температура внешней среды сильно отличается. Этот процесс представляет собой один из аспектов [[гомеостаз]]а — динамически изменяющегося состояния равновесия между внутренней средой организма животного и его внешним окружением. Раздел науки, изучающий такие процессы в [[зоология|зоологии]], называется экофизиологией или физиологической экологией. Если организм не может поддерживать температуру в нормальных для данного вида организмов границах, и температура повышается значительно выше верхней границы нормы, такое состояние называется [[гипертермия|гипертермией]]. Если же температура снижается значительно ниже нижней границы нормы, такое состояние называется [[гипотермия|гипотермией]].
Whereas an organism that ''thermoregulates'' is one that keeps its core body temperature within certain limits, a '''thermoconformer''' changes its body temperature with changes to the temperature outside of its body.
It was not until the introduction of [[thermometer]]s that any exact data on the temperature of animals could be obtained. It was then found that local differences were present, since heat production and heat loss vary considerably in different parts of the body, although the circulation of the blood tends to bring about a mean temperature of the internal parts. Hence it is important to determine the temperature of those parts which most nearly approaches to that of the [[internal organ]]s. Also for such results to be comparable they must be made in the same situation. The [[rectum]] gives most accurately the temperature of internal parts, or in some cases of sex or species, the [[vagina]], [[uterus]] or [[Urinary bladder|bladder]].
== Thermoregulation in humans ==
{{Unreferenced|date=May 2007}}
The human thermoregulation is an important aspect of [[human homeostasis]]. Humans have been able to adapt to a great diversity of climates, including hot humid and hot arid. High temperatures pose serious stresses for the human body, placing it in great danger of injury or even death. In order to deal with these climatic conditions, humans have developed physiologic and cultural modes of adaptation.
=== In hot conditions ===
# Sweat glands under the skin secrete [[sweat]] (a fluid containing mostly water with some dissolved ions) which travels up the sweat duct, through the sweat pore and onto the surface of the skin. This causes heat loss by evaporation; however, a lot of essential water is lost.
# The hairs on the skin lie flat, preventing heat from being trapped by the layer of still air between the hairs. This is caused by tiny muscles under the surface of the skin called arrector pili muscles relaxing so that its attached hair follicle is not erect. These flat hairs increase the flow of air next to the skin increasing heat loss by convection and conduction.
=== In cold conditions ===
# Sweat stops being produced.
# The minute muscles under the surface of the skin called erector muscles (attached to an individual hair follicle) contract ([[piloerection]]), lifting the hair follicle upright. This makes our hairs stand on end which acts as an insulating layer, trapping heat. This is what also causes goose pimples since humans don’t have very much hair and the contracted muscles can easily be seen.
=== Endotherms ===
: ''Main article: [[Endotherm]]''
* {{MeshName|Thermoregulation}}
== См. также ==
* [[Акклиматизация]]