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A '''food coloring''' is any substance that is added to [[food]] or [[drink]] to change its [[color]]. Food coloring is used both in commercial food production and in domestic cooking. Due to its safety and general availability, food coloring is also used in a variety of non-food applications, for example in home craft projects and educational settings.{{fact|date=August 2008}}
== Purpose of food coloring ==
People associate certain [[color]]s with certain [[flavor]]s, and the color of food can influence the [[perception|perceived]] flavor, in anything from [[confectionery|candy]] to [[wine]].
<ref>{{cite journal
| author=Jeannine Delwiche
| title= The impact of perceptual interactions on perceived flavor
| journal= Food Quality and Preference
| year=2004
| volume=15
| pages=137–146
| doi= 10.1016/S0950-3293(03)00041-7 }}</ref>
For this reason, food manufacturers add dyes to their products. Sometimes the aim is to simulate a color that is perceived by the consumer as natural, such as adding red coloring to glacé [[cherry|cherries]] (which would otherwise be beige), but sometimes it is for effect, like the green [[ketchup]] that [[H. J. Heinz Company|Heinz]] launched in 2000.
While most consumers are aware that food with bright or unnatural colors (such as the green ketchup mentioned above or children’s cereals such as [[Froot Loops]]) likely contain food coloring, far fewer people know that seemingly «natural» foods such as oranges and salmon are sometimes also dyed to mask natural variations in color.<ref name="fdacf">{{cite web
|title=FDA/CFSAN Food Color Facts|publisher=[[Food and Drug Administration]]
}}</ref> Color variation in foods throughout the seasons and the effects of processing and storage often make color addition commercially advantageous to maintain the color expected or preferred by the consumer. Some of the primary reasons include:
* Offsetting color loss due to light, air, extremes of temperature, moisture, and storage conditions.
* Masking natural variations in color.
* Enhancing naturally occurring colors.
* Providing identity to foods.
* Protecting flavors and vitamins from damage by light.
* Decorative or artistic purposes such as cake icing.
== Regulation ==
Food colorings are tested for safety by various bodies around the world and sometimes different bodies have different views on food color safety. In the [[United States]], [[FD&C]] (generally indicates that the FDA has approved the colorant for use in foods, [[drugs]] and [[cosmetics]]) numbers are given to approved synthetic food dyes that do not exist in nature, while in the [[European Union]], [[E number]]s are used for all additives, both synthetic and natural, that are approved in food applications.
Most other countries have their own regulations and list of food colors which can be used in various applications, including maximum daily intake limits.
Natural colors are not required to be tested by a number of regulatory bodies throughout the world, including the United States FDA. The FDA lists «color additives exempt from certification» for food in subpart A of [http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_01/21cfr73_01.html the Code of Federal Regulations — Title 21 Part 73]. However, this list contains substances which may have synthetic origins.
== Natural food dyes ==
A growing number of natural food dyes are being commercially produced, partly due to consumer concerns surrounding synthetic dyes. Some examples include:
* [[Caramel coloring]], made from [[caramelization|caramelized]] [[sugar]], used in [[cola]] products and also in cosmetics.
* [[Annatto]], a reddish-orange [[dye]] made from the seed of the [[Achiote]].
* A green dye made from [[chlorella]] [[algae]].
* [[Cochineal]], a red dye derived from the cochineal insect, ''Dactylopius coccus''.
* [[Betanin]] extracted from [[beet]]s.
* [[turmeric]]
* [[saffron]]
* [[paprika]]
* [[Elderberry]] juice
To ensure reproducibility, the colored components of these substances are often provided in highly purified form, and for increased stability and convenience, they can be formulated in suitable carrier materials (solid and liquid).
== Artifical coloring in United States ==
Seven dyes were initially approved under the [[Pure Food and Drug Act]] of 1906, but several have been delisted and replacements have been found. <ref name=fdc>{{cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=News of Food; U.S. May Outlaw Dyes Used to Tint Oranges and Other Foods |url= |quote=The use of artificial colors to make foods more attractive to the eye may be sharply curtailed by action of the United States Food and Drug Administration. Three of the most extensively used coal tar dyes are being considered for removal from the Government's list of colors certified as safe for internal and external use and consumption. |publisher=[[New York Times]] |date=[[January 19]], [[1954]], Tuesday |accessdate=2007-08-21 }}</ref>
=== Current seven ===
In the USA, the following seven artificial colorings are permitted in food (the most common in bold) {{As of|2007|lc=on}}:
* '''[[FD&C]] Blue No. 1 — [[Brilliant Blue FCF]], [[E133]]''' (Blue shade)
* FD&C Blue No. 2 — Indigotine, [[E132]] (Dark Blue shade)
* FD&C Green No. 3 — [[Fast Green FCF]], [[E143]] (Bluish green shade)
* '''FD&C Red No. 40 — [[Allura Red AC]], [[E129]]''' (Red shade)
* FD&C Red No. 3 — [[Erythrosine]], [[E127]] (Pink shade) <ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.fda.gov/bbs/topics/CONSUMER/CON00063.html |title=Red No. 3 and Other Colorful Controversies |accessdate=2007-08-26 |quote=FDA terminated the provisional listings for FD&C Red No. 3 on January 29, 1990,
at the conclusion of its review of the 200 straight colors on the 1960 provisional list. Commonly called erythrosine, FD&C Red No. 3 is a tint that imparts a watermelon-red color and was one of the original seven colors on Hesse's list. |publisher=[[U.S. Food and Drug Administration]] }}</ref>
* '''FD&C Yellow No. 5 — [[Tartrazine]], [[E102]]''' (Yellow shade)
* FD&C Yellow No. 6 — [[Sunset Yellow FCF]], [[E110]] (Orange shade)
The above are known as «Primary Colors», when they are mixed to produce other colors, those colors are then known as «Secondary Colors».
=== Delisted ===
* FD&C Red No. 2 — [[Amaranth (dye)]]
* FD&C Red No. 4 <ref name=eb/>
* [[FD&C Red No. 32]]‎ was used to color Florida oranges. <ref name=fdc/> <ref name=eb/>
* [[FD&C Orange No. 1]], was one of the first water soluble dyes to be commercialized, and one of seven original food dyes allowed under the [[Pure Food and Drug Act]] of June 30, 1906.<ref name=fdc/> <ref name=eb>{{cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Food coloring |url=http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9034796 |quote=Among the colours that have been “delisted,” or disallowed, in the United States are FD&C Orange No. 1; FD&C Red No. 32; FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4; FD&C Violet No. 1; and FD&C Reds No. 2 and 4. Many countries with similar food colouring controls (including Canada and Great Britain) also ban the use of Red No. 40, and Yellow No. 5 is also undergoing testing. |publisher=[[Encyclopædia Britannica]] |date= |accessdate=2007-08-21 }}</ref>
* [[FD&C Orange No. 2]]‎ was used to color Florida oranges. <ref name=fdc/>
* FD&C Yellows No. 1, 2, 3, and 4 <ref name=eb/>
* FD&C Violet No. 1 <ref name=eb/>
== Dyes and lakes ==
Color additives are available for use in food as either «dyes» or «lakes».
[[Dyes]] [[solvation|dissolve]] in water, but are not [[soluble]] in [[oil]]. [[Dyes]] are manufactured as powders, granules, liquids or other special purpose forms. They can be used in beverages, dry mixes, baked goods, confections, [[dairy]] products, pet foods and a variety of other products. Dyes also have side effects which lakes do not, including the fact that large amounts of dyes ingested can color stools.
[[lake pigments|Lakes]] are the combination of dyes and insoluble material. Lakes tint by [[dispersion]]. Lakes are not [[oil]] [[soluble]], but are [[oil]] [[dispersion|dispersible]]. Lakes are more stable than [[dyes]] and are ideal for coloring products containing fats and oils or items lacking sufficient moisture to dissolve [[dyes]]. Typical uses include coated tablets, cake and donut mixes, hard candies and chewing gums, lipsticks, soaps, shampoos, talc, etc.
== Other uses ==
Because food dyes are generally safer to use than normal artistic dyes and pigments, some artists have used food coloring as a means of making pictures, especially in forms such as body-painting.
Food colorings can be used to [[dyeing|dye fabric]], but are usually not washfast when used on cotton, hemp and other plant fibres. Some food dyes can be fixed on Nylon and animal fibers. Red food dye is often used as [[theatrical blood]].
== Criticism and health implications ==
Though past research showed no correlation between [[Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder]] and food dyes,<ref>Wilens TE, Biederman J, Spencer TJ. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder across the lifespan. Annual Review of Medicine, 2002:53:113-131</ref><ref>The MTA Cooperative Group. A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Archives of General Psychiatry, 1999;56:1073-1086</ref> new studies now point to synthetic preservatives and artificial coloring agents as aggravating ADD & ADHD symptoms, both in those affected by these disorders and in the general population.<ref>Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial", Lancet, Sept 2007</ref><ref>1997 Graduate Student Research Project conducted at the University of South Florida. Author- Richard W. Pressinger M.Ed.</ref> Older studies were inconclusive quite possibly due to inadequate clinical methods of measuring offending behavior. Parental reports were more accurate indicators of the presence of additives than clinical tests.<ref>«Food Additives May Affect Kids' Hyperactivity», WebMD Medical News, May 24, 2004.</ref> Several major studies show academic performance increased and disciplinary problems decreased in large non-ADD student populations when artificial ingredients, including artificial colors, were eliminated from school food programs.<ref>A different kind of school lunch", PURE FACTS October 2002</ref><ref>The Impact of a Low Food Additive and Sucrose Diet on Academic Performance in 803 New York City Public Schools, Schoenthaler SJ, Doraz WE, Wakefield JA, Int J Biosocial Res., 1986, 8(2); 185—195</ref>
* [[Norway]] banned all products containing coal tar and coal tar derivatives in 1978. New legislation lifted this ban in 2001 after [[EU]] regulations. As such, many [[FD&C]] approved colorings have been banned.
* [[Tartrazine]] causes [[hives]] in less than 0,01 % of those exposed to it.<ref name="fdacf"/>
* [[Erythrosine]] is linked to [[thyroid]] [[tumor]]s in rats.<ref>Jpn J Cancer Res. 1988 Mar; 79(3):314-9</ref>
* [[Cochineal]], also known as [[carmine]], is derived from insects and therefore is neither [[vegan]] nor [[vegetarian]]. It has also been known to cause severe, even life-threatening, [[allergic reactions]] in rare cases. <ref>«Bugs in your snacks.» The Week. Jan 23, 2009</ref>
This criticism originated during the 1950s. In effect, many foods that used dye (such as red velvet cake) became less popular.
== See also ==
* [[Azo compound]]
* [[E number]]
== См. также ==