Битва под Ульмом: различия между версиями

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|место = [[Ульм]] ({{lang-de|Ulm}}), город в Германии, в земле [[Баден-Вюртемберг]], на реке [[Дунай]].
|итог = победа французов
|противник1 = {{флаг Франции|22px}} [[ФранцузскаяПервая французская империя|Франция]]
|противник2 = {{флаг Австрийской империи|22px}}[[Австрийская империя|Австрия]]
|командир1 = [[Наполеон I]]
|потери2 = 12 000 убитыми и ранеными <br /> 30 000 пленными}}
{{Битвы Третьей Коалиции}}
'''Битва под Ульмом'''  (16—19 [[октябрь|октября]] [[1805]])  — серия столкновений между армией [[Наполеон I|Наполеона]] и австрийской армией под командованием генерала [[Макк, Карл|Макка]]. Армия Макка была окружена и капитулировала<ref group="Прим.">Часть австрийской кавалерии с боем вышла из окружения</ref>.
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== Предшествующие события ==
В 1805 Британия, Австрия, Швеция и Россия образовали Третью коалицию против Наполеона. После того как Бавария вступила в союз с Наполеоном, Австрия двинула против нее 70-тысячную армию под командованием генерала Макка. Русская армия выступила из Польши на соединение с австрийцами. Союзники предполагали, что столкновение с Наполеоном произойдет не в Германии, а в северной Италии и их целью была защита Альп.
 
== Ульмский маневр ==
К осени 1805 основные силы Наполеона были сосредоточены в Булони и ожидали сигнала к вторжению в Англию.
 
Napoleon had 177,000 troops of the [[La Grande Armée|Grande Armée]] at [[Boulogne-sur-Mer|Boulogne]], ready to invade England. They marched south on August 27 and by September 24 were ready to cross the Rhine from [[Mannheim]] to [[Strasbourg]]. After crossing the Rhine, the greater part of the French army made a gigantic right wheel so that its corps reached the [[Danube]] simultaneously, facing south. On October 7, Mack learned that Napoleon planned to cross the Danube and march around his right flank so as to cut him off from the Russians who were marching via [[Vienna]]. He accordingly changed front, placing his left at Ulm and his right at [[Rain (Lech)|Rain]], but the French went on and crossed the Danube at [[Neuburg an der Donau|Neuburg]], [[Donauwörth]], and [[Ingolstadt]]. Unable to stop the French avalanche, [[Michael von Kienmayer]]'s Austrian corps abandoned its positions along the river and fled to [[Munich]].
 
On 8 October 1805, Franz Auffenberg'sAuffenberg’s division was cut to pieces by [[Joachim Murat]]'s [[I Cavalry Corps (Grande Armée)|Cavalry Corps]] and [[Jean Lannes]]' [[V Corps (Grande Armée)|V Corps]] at the [[Battle of Wertingen]]. The following day, Mack attempted to cross the Danube and move north. He was defeated in the [[Battle of Günzburg]] by [[Jean-Pierre Firmin Malher]]'s division of [[Michel Ney]]'s [[VI Corps (Grande Armée)|VI Corps]] which was still operating on the north bank. During the action, the French seized a bridgehead on the south bank. After first withdrawing to Ulm, Mack tried to break out to the north. His army was blocked by [[Pierre Dupont de l'Etang]]'s VI Corps division and some cavalry in the [[Battle of Haslach-Jungingen]] on 11 October.
 
By the 11th, Napoleon'sNapoleon’s corps were spread out in a wide net to snare Mack'sMack’s army. [[Nicolas Soult]]'s [[IV Corps (Grande Armée)|IV Corps]] reached [[Landsberg am Lech]] and turned east to cut off Mack from the [[County of Tyrol|Tyrol]]. [[Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte]]'s [[I Corps (Grande Armée)|I Corps]] and [[Louis Nicolas Davout]]'s [[III Corps (Grande Armée)|III Corps]] converged on Munich. [[Auguste Marmont]]'s [[II Corps (Grande Armée)|II Corps]] was at [[Augsburg]]. Murat, Ney, Lannes, and the [[Imperial Guard (Napoleon I)|Imperial Guard]] began closing in on Ulm. Mack ordered the corps of [[Franz von Werneck]] to march northeast, while [[Johann Sigismund Riesch]] covered its right flank at [[Elchingen]]. The Austrian commander sent [[Franz Jellacic]]'s corps south toward the Tyrol and held the remainder of his army at Ulm.
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== Ульмский маневр ==
Начиная кампанию 1805 г., Наполеон сумел добиться эффекта внезапности.