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British Culture
'''Культура Соединённого Королевства''' богата и разнообразна. Она в значительной мере влияет на культуру в мировом масштабе.
Traditions and holidays
[[Великобритания]] обладает сильными культурными связями со своими бывшими колониями, особенно с теми государствами, где [[английский язык]] является государственным. Так, некоторые английские музыкальные исполнители заметно повлияли на развитие музыки в мире ([[Beatles]]). Значительный вклад в британскую культуру за последние полвека внесли [[иммигрант]]ы из Индийского субконтинента и [[Список стран Карибского бассейна|стран Карибского бассейна]].
British calendar is flashy with all kinds of holidays: national, traditional, public or bank holidays. The formation of some of them dates back hundreds of year, and it is not great surprise for such country as Great Britain loving its culture and history.
В процессе формирования Соединённого Королевства в его состав вошли культуры бывших независимых государств, поэтому можно также рассматривать их в отдельности.
Public or bank holidays require all business and other bank institutions to close for the day and to give the employees a paid day off. They are: Christmas, New Years Day, Easter, St. Patrick’s Day, etc. Traditions respected on these days are various and interesting: for example, on the President’s Day girls are to ask boys off for a date, or invite them to a party or to the cinema, or even ask him to marry her. On the St. Patrick’s Day people use to wear something green and attend parades.
National holidays are also rich in their traditions and customs. On the Memorial Day people use to invite friends and relatives to a dinner and remember the dead together.
The Midsummer Day, on the 24th of June gives a possibility to visit the Stonehenge – the biggest stone circle, dating back to the 1st century BC, built by Druids, and is considered their calendar, used to count months and seasons.
If you visit UK on the 31st of October, you can meet witches, wizards, ghosts and different types of evil spirits appearing on Halloween. It is common for people to spend thousands of dollars on dresses, masks and other types of Halloween attributes. The celebration begins long before the 31st. People decorate their houses with pumpkins – they cut out the middle of the pumpkin, cut holes for eyes and mouth and put a candle inside. Some cities make a whole competition and parade of the best pumpkins of all. Children have a special tradition to go to their neighbors and play “Trick or Treat!”. If people give them money they will go away, otherwise they will play a trick on you by drawing something dreadful on your house or your car.
Many English cities are based by Romans in the first centuries of our era. A city gate concern to constructions of this time in Lincoln, a gate in Colchester, a bath in
Bagte, numerous ruins of the Roman military strengthenings Adrianom the shaft separating England from Scotland.
In XVI century — the beginning of XVIII century in the Great Britain the Renaissance and a baroque dominated, their elements frequently mixed up in the same building. The major monument of the style named « the English baroque », is St.. Paul’s cathedral in London, constructed in last third XVII centuries under the project of sir Christopher Rena — one of the largest English architects.
In XIX century on change monumental georgiotime to style has come Victorian. In this style one of the well-known constructions in the world — the Buckingham palace is executed. Stood tests of destiny (on September, 9, 1940 the German bomb has fallen to a palace, three days later it has been again attacked), it appears at us in all greatness and beauty.
The enormous damage put by the Second World War, has forced to pay special attention to construction of school buildings and habitation for needy and average layers of the population, modular designs, two-storeyed houses, city planning, instead of to construction of magnificent private residences. Restored church in Coventry, hotels in London and creation of new area around of a cathedral over. Paul in London deserve special attention.
Conducting musical collectives of Britain — London philharmonic and London symphonic orchestras. New philharmonic, Royal philharmonic and symphonic orchestra BBC (all in London); the Orchestra Hull (Manchester); the Scottish national orchestra (Edinburgh); symphonic orchestras in Birmingham, Bournemouth and Liverpool. National advice on art and the Society of support of new music give new composers the help in preparation and publications of their works.
In the Great Britain the folk music which is executed in a cabaret, clubs, music halls, on TV and radio uses the big popularity. The jazz is especially popular; jazz musicians frequently invite to a court yard.
The fine arts
Presently painting of England is under influence more likely New York, than Paris, in part it is result of the international exhibitions. In United Kingdom 15 regional art colleges. The most known — Royal college of arts, the Central School of arts and crafts and School of fine arts Slade. Training at all schools of Royal Academy free-of-charge. Advice on industrial design has the center of design in London and annually gives out 21 premium. In Glasgow also there is a Center of design.
In the Great Britain there are also 950 museums and art galleries, from which the department of printed editions and figures of the British museum, Victoria and Albert’s museum, National gallery, National portrait gallery and gallery Tejt are main. All of them are in London. In Edinburgh the National museum of antiquities, National portrait gallery are located; the Royal Scottish museum and National gallery of the modern art. In Cardiff there is a Welsh national museum, and in Belfast — the National museum of the Irish national creativity.
== Язык ==
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