Студия звукозаписи: различия между версиями

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== История ==
{{TODO}} <!--[[:en:History of sound recording]] -->
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; 1890-е - 1930-е
В эпоху акустических записей (до введения микрофонов, электроники и усиления) самые ранние звукозаписывающие студии были устроены очень просто, являясь по существу звуконепроницаемыми комнатами, которые изолировали исполнителей от внешнего шума. В течение этой эры нередко записывались записи в любом доступном месте, например, в местной бальной зале, используя переносное акустическое записывающее оборудование. В этот период основные записи были сделаны с использованием процесса непосредственной нарезки на диск ([[:en:Direct to disc recording|direct-to-disc]]). Исполнители обычно группировались вокруг большого акустического рупора (увеличенный вариант знакомого рупора [[фонограф]]а). Акустическая энергия от голосов или инструментов была направлена ​​через диафрагму рога на механический режущий станок, расположенный в следующей комнате, который вписывал сигнал в виде модулированной канавки непосредственно на поверхность главного цилиндра или диска.
 
После изобретения и коммерческого введения [[микрофон]], электронного [[усилителя]], [[Микшерный пульт|микшерного пульта]] и [[Громкоговоритель|громкоговорителя]], электрическая запись постепенно преобразовала индустрию записи. К [[1925]] году это технология заменила механические методы звукозаписи на таких крупных лейблах, как [[RCA Victor]] и [[Columbia Records|Columbia]], и к [[1933]] году акустическая запись полностью исчезла.
 
; 1940-е - 1970-е
Электрическая запись, распространившаяся в начале 1930-х годов, и мастеринг записи был электрофицирован<!-- mastering lathes were electrically powered -->, но мастер-запись все же приходилось нарезать непосредственно на диск (direct-to-disc). В соответствии с преобладающими музыкальными направлениями, студии в этот период были в основном предназначены для живой записи симфонических оркестров и других крупных инструментальных ансамблей. Инженеры вскоре обнаружили, что большие реверберирующие пространства, такие как концертные залы, создают яркую акустическую подпись, поскольку естественный ревербератор усиливает звук записи. В этот период предпочтение отдавали большим, акустически «живым» залам, а не акустическим «мертвым» стендам и студийным залам, которые стали распространяться после 1960-х годов.
Из-за ограничений технологии записи, которые не учитывали методы [[Многодорожечная запись|многодорожечной записи]], студии середины 20-го века разработатывались под концепцию группировки музыкантов (например, ритм-секция или духовая секция) и певцов (например, группа бэк-вокалистов), а не разделение их, и взаимного размещение исполнителей и микрофонов для захвата сложного акустического и гармонического взаимодействия, возникшего во время исполнения (в 2000-х годах современная звукозапись всё ещё иногда использует этот подход для больших проектов <!-- film score - оценка фильма-->, которые используют большие оркестры).
 
; после 1980-х
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[[File:DM Recording Studio.jpg|thumb|right|The [[Siemens]] Studio for Electronic Music ca. 1956.]]
[[File:Donna Summer 1977.JPG|thumb|[[Donna Summer]] wearing headphones during a recording session in 1977]]
Electric recording studios in the mid-20th century often lacked isolation booths, baffles, and sometimes even speakers, and it was not until the 1960s, with the introduction of the high-fidelity [[headphones]] that it became common practice for performers to use headsets to monitor their performance during recording and listen to playbacks. It was difficult to isolate all the performers—a major reason that this practice was not used
simply because recordings were usually made as live ensemble 'takes' and all the performers needed to be able to see each other and the ensemble leader while playing. The recording engineers who trained in this period learned to take advantage of the complex acoustic effects that could be created through "leakage" between different microphones and groups of instruments, and these technicians became extremely skilled at capturing the unique acoustic properties of their studios and the musicians in performance.
 
The use of different kinds of [[microphone]]s and their placement around the studio was a crucial part of the recording process, and particular brands of microphone were used by engineers for their specific audio characteristics. The smooth-toned ribbon microphones developed by the [[RCA]] company in the 1930s were crucial to the "crooning" style perfected by [[Bing Crosby]], and the famous [[Georg Neumann|Neumann]] U47 [[condenser microphone]] was one of the most widely used from the 1950s. This model is still widely regarded by audio professionals as one of the best microphones of its type ever made. Learning the correct placement of microphones was a major part of the training of young engineers, and many became extremely skilled in this craft. Well into the 1960s, in the classical field it was not uncommon for engineers to make high-quality orchestral recordings using only one or two microphones suspended above the orchestra. In the 1960s, engineers began experimenting with placing microphones much closer to instruments than had previously been the norm. The distinctive rasping tone of the horn sections on the [[Beatles]] recordings "[[Good Morning Good Morning]]" and "[[Lady Madonna]]" were achieved by having the saxophone players position their instruments so that microphones were virtually inside the mouth of the horn.
 
The unique sonic characteristics of the major studios imparted a special character to many of the most famous popular recordings of the 1950s and 1960s, and the recording companies jealously guarded these facilities. According to sound historian David Simons, after Columbia took over the 30th Street Studios in the late 1940s and [[A&R]] manager [[Mitch Miller]] had tweaked it to perfection, Miller issued a standing order that the drapes and other fittings were not to be touched, and the cleaners had specific orders never to mop the bare wooden floor for fear it might alter the acoustic properties of the hall. There were several other features of studios in this period that contributed to their unique "sonic signatures". As well as the inherent sound of the large recording rooms, many of the best studios incorporated specially-designed [[echo chamber]]s, purpose-built rooms which were often built beneath the main studio.
 
These were typically long, low rectangular spaces constructed from hard, sound-reflective materials like concrete, fitted with a loudspeaker at one end and one or more microphones at the other. During a recording session, a signal from one or more of the microphones in the studio could be routed to the loudspeaker in the echo chamber; the sound from the speaker reverberated through the chamber and the enhanced signal was picked up by the microphone at the other end. This echo-enhanced signal—which was often used to 'sweeten' the sound of vocals—could then be blended in with the primary signal from the microphone in the studio and mixed into the track as the master recording was being made. Special equipment was another notable feature of the "classic" recording studio. The biggest studios were owned and operated by large media companies like RCA, Columbia and EMI, who typically had their own electronics research and development divisions that designed and built custom-made recording equipment and mixing consoles for their studios. Likewise, the smaller independent studios were often owned by skilled electronics engineers who designed and built their own desks and other equipment. A good example of this is the famous [[Gold Star Studios]] in Los Angeles, the site of many famous American pop recordings of the 1960s. Co-owner David S. Gold built the studio's main mixing desk and many additional pieces of equipment and he also designed the studio's unique trapezoidal echo chambers.
 
During the 1950s and 1960s, the sound of pop recordings was further defined by the introduction of proprietary sound processing devices such as equalizers and compressors, which were manufactured by specialist electronics companies. One of the best known of these was the famous [[Pultec]] equalizer, which was used by almost all the major commercial studios of the time.
 
====Multi-track recording====
With the introduction of [[multi-track recording]], it became possible to record instruments and singers separately and at different times on different tracks on tape, although it was not until the 1970s that the large recording companies began to adopt this practice widely, and throughout the 1960s many "pop" classics were still recorded live in a single take. After the 1960s, the emphasis shifted to isolation and sound-proofing, with treatments like echo and reverberation added separately during the mixing process, rather than being blended in during the recording. One regrettable outcome of this trend, which coincided with rising inner-city property values, was that many of the largest studios were either demolished or redeveloped for other uses. In the mid 20th century, recordings were [[Analog recording|analog]], made on ¼-inch or ½-inch [[magnetic tape]], or, more rarely, on 35mm [[film stock|magnetic film]], with [[History of multitrack recording|multitrack recording]] reaching 8 tracks in the 1950s, 16 in 1968, and 32 in the 1970s. The commonest such tape is the 2-inch analog, capable of containing up to 24 individual tracks. Generally, after an audio mix is set up on a 24-track tape machine, the signal is played back and sent to a different machine, which records the combined signals (called ''printing'') to a ½-inch 2-track stereo tape, called a ''master''.
 
Before digital recording, the total number of available tracks onto which one could record was measured in multiples of 24, based on the number of 24-track tape machines being used. In the 2010s, most recording studios now use [[digital recording]] equipment, which limits the number of available tracks only on the basis of the [[mixing console]]'s or computer hardware interface's capacity and the ability of the hardware to cope with processing demands. Analog tape machines are still used by some audiophiles and sound engineers, who believe that digitally recorded audio as sounding too harsh and who believe that tape has a "warmer" sound. The scarcity and age of analog tape machines has increased their value, as does the fact that some audio engineers still believe in recording to analog tape.
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==Домашние и в залах и церквях==
===Halls and churches===
Because of their superb acoustics, many of the larger studios were converted churches. Examples include [[George Martin]]'s [[AIR Studios]] in [[London]], the famed [[CBS 30th Street Studio|Columbia Records 30th Street Studio]] in New York City (a converted Armenian church, with a ceiling over 100 feet high),<ref name="SIMONS">{{cite book|last=Simons|first=David|title=Studio Stories - How the Great New York Records Were Made | location = San Francisco | publisher = Backbeat Books | year = 2004 | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=uEmmAK1qjbYC&printsec=frontcover}}</ref> and the equally famous [[Decca Records]] [[Pythian Temple (New York City)|Pythian Temple]] studio in New York (where artists like [[Louis Jordan]], [[Bill Haley]] and [[Buddy Holly]] were recorded) which was also a large converted church that featured a high, domed ceiling in the center of the hall.
 
Facilities like the Columbia Records 30th Street Studio in New York and [[EMI]]'s [[Abbey Road Studio]] in London were renowned for their 'trademark' sound—which was (and still is) easily identifiable by audio professionals—and for the skill of their staff engineers. As the need to transfer audio material between different studios grew, there was an increasing demand for [[standardization]] in studio design across the recording industry, and [[Westlake Recording Studios]] in West Hollywood was highly influential in the 1970s in the development of standardized acoustic design.<ref>{{cite book | author = Philip Newell | title = Recording Studio Design | publisher = Focal Press | year = 2003 | isbn = 0-240-51917-5 | pages = 315–316|url=https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=AKVQ7Ywz3DYC&lpg=PP1&dq=isbn%3A0240519175&pg=PA315#v=onepage&q&f=false|accessdate=14 January 2017}}</ref>
 
In [[New York City]], [[Columbia Records]] had some of the most highly respected sound recording studios, including the [[CBS 30th Street Studio|Columbia 30th Street Studio]] at 207 East 30th Street, the [[CBS Studio Building]] at 49 East 52nd Street, [[Liederkranz Hall]] at 111 East 58th Street between Park and Lexington Avenues (a building built by and formerly belonging to a German cultural and musical society, The Liederkranz Club and Society),<ref>[http://www.liederkranznycity.org/history.asp "History of The Liederkranz of the City of New York"] - The Liederkranz of the City of New York website. The Liederkranz Club put up a building in 1881 at 111-119 East 58th Street, east of Park Avenue.</ref><ref name="KAHN2001">[[Ashley Kahn|Kahn, Ashley]], [https://books.google.com/books?id=6QArFwi9buUC&printsec=frontcover ''Kind of Blue: The Making of the Miles Davis Masterpiece''], Da Capo Press, 2001. Cf. [https://books.google.com/books?id=6QArFwi9buUC&pg=PA75&lpg=PA75&dq=liederkranz+hall+columbia+records&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6#v=onepage&q=liederkranz%20hall&f=false p.75]</ref> and one of their earliest recording studios, "Studio A" at 799 Seventh Avenue.<ref name="SIMONS"/>
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== См. также ==