Медаль Джеймса Крейга Уотсона (англ.James Craig Watson Medal) — награда, присуждаемая раз в два года Национальной академией наук США за вклад в астрономию. Названа в честь канадско-американского астронома Д. К. Уотсона, на средства которого учреждена. Вместе с бронзовой медалью лауреату вручаются $25 000 и $50 000 направляются на поддержку его исследований.
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For his work in perfecting the application of heliometer to astronomical measurements, which has resulted in an important advance in astronomy of precision, especially in the determination of parallaxes of the sun and stars and of the position of the planets.
For his work as creator and exploiter of new instruments and techniques that have opened whole new areas of astronomy to us all--solar oscillations, infrared surveys, spun telescopes, and large millimeter-wave reflectors.
For his leadership in X-ray astronomy since its beginning, and his crucial role in enabling the U.S./Japanese collaboration in the ASCA mission, a beautiful example of international cooperation in sciences.
For their painstaking research, which led to the discovery of more than 800 asteroids and 32 comets, including their co-discovery of Comet Shoemaker-Levy, the first comet observed colliding with a planet.
For her role in critical discoveries concerning the large-scale structure of the Universe, for her insightful analyses of galaxies in groups and clusters, and for her being a model in mentoring young scientists.
For his seminal contributions to the theory of the interstellar and intergalactic medium, his cosmological simulations that help illuminate the formation and evolution of structure in the universe, his theoretical contribution to the existence of Dark Matter halos around galaxies, and his dedication to the scientific and academic communities through service as provost, builder of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and as a mentor of generations of young astronomers.
His work, with students using supernova light curves as calibrated standard candles, has provided evidence for an accelerating expansion of the universe. The dark energy inferred from this result is one of the deepest mysteries of modern science.
For his visionary scientific and technical advancements that have been critical to the fields of helioseismology, asteroseismology, and the emerging field of spectroscopy of transiting exoplanets, and for his critical role in helping a new generation of scientists and facilities to succeed.
For her many important contributions to the field of molecular astrophysics and astrochemistry. Bringing together theoretical chemistry, laboratory studies, and astronomical observations with many instruments, Ewine van Dishoeck has advanced our knowledge of interstellar processes, and of the physical conditions in star-forming regions and protoplanetary disks.